Treatment Of Intestinal Parasites
Ideally it is best to treat all shelter animals with a single all-purpose dewormer that is inexpensive, safe, convenient to administer, highly effective against a broad spectrum of parasites, and appropriately labeled for the intended use. Unfortunately, such an ideal product does not exist. Listed below are various deworming medications that may be useful in a shelter.
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Is Amoxicillin Poisonous To Cats
Amoxicillin is not poisonous to cats, is very safe at prescribed doses, and side effects are uncommon.
However, if a cat were to get into and consume an amount of amoxicillin much higher than a typically prescribed dosage, like say, a 500mg human tablet, severe digestive upset may occur. Neurologic changes, like an inability to walk normally have been reported in dogs, as well as elevated heart rate and breathing changes.
Many medications can cause significant negative health effects if very high doses inappropriate for the patient are ingested. So while amoxicillin is not in itself a toxin, if you suspect your kitty has ingested an overdose of her own amoxicillin or possibly any prescribed for you or a family member at home, always notify your veterinarian and/or get in touch with Animal Poison Control to determine what steps may need to be taken.
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About Dr Chris Vanderhoof Dvm Mph
Dr. Chris Vanderhoof is a 2013 graduate of the Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, where he also earned a Masters in Public Health. He completed a rotating internship with Red Bank Veterinary Hospital in New Jersey and now works as a general practitioner in the Washington D.C. area.Dr. Vanderhoof is also a copywriter specializing in the animal health field and founder of Paramount Animal Health Writing Solutions, which can be found at www.animalhealthcopywriter.com. Dr. Vanderhoof lives in the Northern Virginia area with his family, including 3 cats.
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Are There Any Risk Factors For This Medication
Sulfadimethoxine should not be used in pets that are allergic to sulfonamides, thiazides, or sulfonylurea products. It should also be avoided in pets with severe liver or kidney dysfunction or in pets that are dehydrated, pregnant, or nursing. Sulfadimethoxine should be used cautiously in pets with milder liver, kidney, or thyroid dysfunction, weak, old, or frail pets, or pets with a history of urinary obstruction. It should be used cautiously in Doberman Pinschers as they are more susceptible to serious side effects.
Which Intestinal Parasites Should We Treat
Ideally, a shelters deworming program should be based on a knowledge of which parasites are present in your particular shelter population. However, there are some general guidelines for deworming that could apply to nearly all shelter populations. For example, in puppies and kittens, roundworms and hookworms are ubiquitous. These are particularly important because they can be transmitted from mothers to puppies or kittens through the placenta and/or the mammary gland, so infections are extremely common in young animals, and can be severe. Up to 80% of puppies are infected with roundworms, but typically only about 20% of these infections are detected on fecal exam, so they should be treated regardless of fecal exam results. Also, roundworms and hookworms are both zoonotic, another reason that great care should be taken to control them.
Lastly, environmental contamination with roundworm eggs is practically impossible to get rid of, another reason to treat animals prophylactically to prevent shedding. Whipworms are less common than roundworms or hookworms, and are also generally less of a concern in a shelter environment. Thus it may not be necessary to treat for whipworms unless whipworm eggs are found on a fecal exam. However, like roundworm eggs, whipworm eggs are also very resistant to disinfection, so it is not a bad idea to treat all dogs over three months of age for whipworms too.
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Gastrointestinal Parasites In Kittens By Dr Erica Ellis Dvm
What is the culprit?The most common organisms who infect the gastrointestinal tract of kittens include protozoa like giardia, tritrichomonas feotus, and cryptosporidium parvum. Worms like diplidium caninum are also possible cause of diarrhea, and weaned kittens are susceptible to ancylostoma tubaeforme and toxocara cati .How are different parasites transmitted?Protozoa are spread by infective feces that can contaminate food, water, or other objects that even a young kitten could lick. The queen may not be showing any symptoms despite a chronic infection, so do not rule this cause out even if the kittens mother is healthy. Tape worms are spread when kittens ingest fleas. Round worms or hook worms transmission requires ingestion of contaminated feces or of hosts ranging from rabbits to earthworms. As such, these parasites are less likely to infect neonatal and infant kittens but are still worth ruling out in older kittens.What symptoms will the kitten show?Protozoal parasites: Diarrhea, which can tend to be mucoid and foul-smellingHook worms: Malaise, poor weight gain, a distended abdomen, anemia, a rough hair coat, diarrhea, and blood in the stool
Round worms: Intermittent diarrhea, a distended abdomen, failure to gain weight despite ravenous appetite, possibly white, noodle like worms in the stool
Tape worms: You may see no symptoms, or you may see worms resembling rice grains in the stool
Albon Oral Suspension 5% For Dogs & Cats
Albon is an oral liquid prescribed to both cats and dogs, in order to treat a variety of bacterial infections. A single daily dose gives rapid and sustained therapeutic blood levels for up to 24 hours, and comes in a tasty, custard-flavored liquid that makes it easier than ever to give your pet the treatment they need.
UsesAlbon is effective for treating a wide range of bacterial infections commonly encountered in dogs and cats. It is indicated for use in dogs and cats with respiratory, genital and urinary tracts and soft-tissue infections. It is also indicated for treating dogs with bacterial enteritis associated with coccidiosis.
Possible Side EffectsThis medication can cause crystals in your pets urine but sickness can be prevented by keeping your pet well-hydrated. If animals take Albon Liquid 5% chronically, it can cause dry eye or keratoconjunctivitis sicca . Always stop using Albon Liquid 5% and consult with your veterinarian if your pets eyes appear red, inflamed, or infected.
Drug & Food InteractionsAlbon is not effective in viral or rickettsial infections, and as with any antibacterial agent, occasional failures in therapy may occur due to resistant microorganisms. The usual precautions in sulfonamide therapy should be observed.
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Why Are Intestinal Parasites A Reason For Concern In Shelters
Intestinal parasites are common in animal shelters in the U.S. and often cause illness in the animals they infect. Diarrhea is most common, but anemia, coughing and even death can occur. On the other hand, many parasites may cause infections but animals may show no clinical signs. This means that some animals that appear perfectly healthy may be causing spread of infections and environmental contamination.
Several intestinal parasites of dogs & cats are zoonotic that is, they can also cause disease in human beings, including shelter staff, adopters, or even just members of the general public who visit animal shelters. Shelter workers, with their constant exposure to animals and their feces, are at particularly high risk.
Significant contamination of the environment by worm eggs or protozoan oocysts can be a major problem that is difficult to resolve. Many of these eggs or oocysts are extremely resistant to cleaning and disinfection. This can be particularly problematic in a shelter environment, where there is often a dense population of animals and/or a constant influx of new animals.
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Possible Side Effects Of Albon:
Sulfa crystals may appear in your petÃ¢s urine. Your pet should be allowed to drink plenty of water while taking this medication. Other side effects that may occur include KCS or dry eye, anemia, fever, loss of appetite, vomiting or diarrhea, joint inflammation, kidney damage, and skin rash. Stop the medication and contact your veterinarian if any of the above symptoms occur. Other side effects may also occur. Talk to your veterinarian about any side effect that seems unusual or bothersome to your pet. If your pet experiences an allergic reaction, signs may include facial swelling, hives, scratching, sudden onset of diarrhea, vomiting, shock, seizures, or coma. If these signs occur, contact your veterinarian immediately.
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How Much Amoxicillin Do You Give A Cat
In short, what your veterinarian prescribes! Amoxicillin has a wide dosage range. The dosage and frequency can vary depending on the type of infectious condition being treated, so its always best for your kittys vet to determine what is most appropriate.
And always remember that even if your kitty appears to be feeling better, to always finish out a prescribed course of antibiotics, as this helps to reduce the risk for development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
Which Animals Should Be Treated For Intestinal Parasites
The Companion Animal Parasite Council recommends that all companion animals be treated year-round with broad-spectrum heartworm antihelminthics that have activity against parasites with zoonotic potential. Therefore, it would be ideal to make treatment for common parasites as widely available for all shelter animals as possible. However, limited shelter resources often necessitate compromises that are less than ideal.
However, some general guidelines for parasite treatment should apply to nearly all shelter populations. As stated above, roundworms and hookworms are extremely common in puppies and kittens, so it may be particularly important to prophylactically deworm all animals under the age of 3 or 4 months.
It should be noted that a national study of intestinal parasites in shelter dogs found parasites in dogs of all age groups. In this study, hookworms and whipworms were just as common in older dogs as they were in puppies, although roundworms and coccidia were less common in adults than in puppies. Thus the recommendation is to treat all animals at intake with a broad spectrum dewormer such as pyrantal.
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Cephalexin For Cats Dosage Chart
Cephalexin is usually given in dogs at a dose of 10 to 15 mg per pound of body weight. The recommended dose of cephalexin given for most infections is 13.6mg/pound for a dog.
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Actions: Sulfadimethoxine Has Been Demonstrated Clinically Or In The Laboratory To Be Effective Against A Variety Of Organisms Such As Streptococci Klebsiella Proteus Shigella Staphylococci Escherichia And Salmonella12 These Organisms Have Been Demonstrated In Respiratory Genitourinary Enteric And Soft Tissue Infections Of Dogs And Cats
the Systemic Sulfonamides Which Include Sulfadimethoxine Are Bacteriostatic Agents. Sulfonamides Competitively Inhibit Bacterial Synthesis Of Folic Acid From Para-aminobenzoic Acid. Mammalian Cells Are Capable Of Utilizing Folic Acid In The Presence Of Sulfonamides. The Tissue Distribution Of Sulfadimethoxine, As With All Sulfonamides, Is A Function Of Plasma Levels, Degree Of Plasma Protein Binding, And Subsequent Passive Distribution In The Tissues Of The Lipid-soluble Un-ionized Form. The Relative Amounts Are Determined By Both Its Pka And By The Ph Of Each Tissue. Therefore, Levels Tend To Be Higher In Less Acid Tissue And Body Fluids Or Those Diseased Tissues Having High Concentrations Of Leucocytes.2
in The Dog, Sulfadimethoxine Is Not Acetylated As In Most Other Animals, And It Is Excreted Predominantly As The Unchanged Drug.3 Sulfadimethoxine Has A Relatively High Solubility At The Ph Normally Occurring In The Kidney, Precluding The Possibility Of Precipitation And Crystalluria. Slow Renal Excretion Results From A High Degree Of Tubular Reabsorption,4 And Plasma Protein Binding Is Very High, Providing A Blood Reservoir Of The Drug. Thus, Sulfadimethoxine Maintains Higher Blood Levels Than Most Other Long-acting Sulfonamides. Single, Comparatively Low Doses Of Albon Give Rapid And Sustained Therapeutic Blood Levels.1
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A Suggested Basic Parasite Control Protocol For Shelters:
Ideally, a shelters deworming program should be based on a knowledge of which parasites are present in the particular shelter population. For a map of prevalence of parasites in the US, see CAPC prevalence maps. However, there are some general guidelines that apply to nearly all shelter populations.
All dogs, cats, puppies and kittens entering shelters should be treated for certain parasites in order to protect the rest of the shelter population, prevent environmental contamination or infestation, and minimize zoonotic threats to shelter staff and the public.
A minimum shelter parasite control protocol should consist of prophylactic treatment of all shelter dogs and cats for the most common parasites at the time of intake. This should consist at least of a dewormer effective against roundworms and hookworms, and flea preventive . The most straightforward products to use for this basic internal and external parasite control protocol are an oral dewormer containing pyrantel pamoate , and topical products such as imidacloprid and/or fipronil . For more information on external parasites please visit our Flea Treatment in Animal Shelters page.
In addition to deworming on intake, puppies and kittens should also be dewormed repeatedly with pyrantel every 2 weeks from 2 weeks to 16 weeks of age. Re-treatment is very important!
All pregnant and nursing dogs and cats should also be dewormed with pyrantel every 2 weeks while housed in the shelter or foster care.
How Long Does It Take For Albon To Work In Cats
The most common drug used to treat coccidiosis is a sulfa-class antibiotic, sulfadimethoxine. It is typically administered for 5-20 days. Some formulations of this medication are pleasant-tasting and most will readily them. If the sulfa drug is not effective, other treatments are available.
Subsequently, question is, should Albon be given with food? tablets and oral suspension are by mouth, and may be given with food. Encourage your pet to drink water when taking to prevent crystals from forming in the urine. Always follow the dosage instructions provided by your veterinarian.
Accordingly, what is Albon used for in cats?
Suspension is an antibiotic to treat bacterial infections in and dogs. It can also treat coccidial infections, which are caused by a microscopic, spore-forming, single-celled parasite that infects the intestinal tract. Suspension requires a prescription from your veterinarian.
How much Albon can I give my cat?
Dogs and should receive 1 teaspoonful of Oral Suspension 5% per 10 lb of body weight as an initial dose, followed by 1/2 teaspoonful per 10 lb of body weight every 24 hours thereafter. Shake well before using.
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What Does Albon Do For Cats
Albon is commonly used to treat severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dehydration, most commonly in young kittens.
Sulfonamides like sulfadimethoxine work by interfering with the synthesis of folic acid, or vitamin B9. Microorganisms that dont produce their own folic acid are unaffected by sulfonamides.
When used against infections caused by the coccidian group Isospora, Albon is typically effective at eliminating the parasite.
Isospora can be common intestinal parasites, especially in young kittens, and can cause severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dehydration. Kittens often acquire the parasites either from their mother who is a carrier, or from infected stool present in the environment. Some adult cats can be asymptomatic carriers of Isospora and while not showing signs of disease, can present a risk to pets with compromised immune systems, especially young kittens.
Its very common to treat cats that have Isospora oocysts in their stool samples, even if they are not showing signs of illness, as they can present a risk to other pets. Isospora is not a parasite infectious to humans.
Albon is a first choice for treating Isospora infections, because it is generally very effective and is inexpensive. Resistant Isospora infections that dont resolve with Albon are fortunately rare, but do occur. In these cases there are other medications that can be used, but they are often more expensive or less practical to dose and administer.
What Is Sulfadimethoxine
Sulfadimethoxine is a sulfonamide antimicrobial usually used to treat coccidiosis but can also be used to treat other types of infections in dogs and cats.
Its use in small mammals and reptiles to treat coccidia or other infections is Ã¢off labelÃ¢ or Ã¢extra labelÃ¢. Many drugs are commonly prescribed for off label use in veterinary medicine. In these instances, follow your veterinarians directions and cautions very carefully as their directions may be significantly different from those on the label.
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Dosage For Young Kittens
Young kittens can be at risk for dehydration if they experience diarrhea, which can be unpleasant and messy. Because of this, your veterinarian may prescribe Albon to treat diarrhea and prevent dehydration in your kitten. In addition to preventing dehydration, Albon can help treat infections in the skin, soft tissue, and gastrointestinal tract. It can also inhibit coccidia, a parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in young kittens.
The oral dosage for Albon depends on the weight of the kitten. A five-pound kitten would require 125 mg of the medicine. A veterinarian should determine the right dosage for your cat based on his weight. The medication is usually given once a day. It should be administered for a minimum of 3 days and should be continued for another two days if symptoms go away. Taking Albon orally is a simple, safe way to prevent diarrhea and dehydration.
The dose for young kittens with Albon depends on the size of the kitten and the severity of the infection. A veterinarian may prescribe different dosages based on the type of infection and the response of the kitten to Albon. The medication should be stored at room temperature, away from sunlight, and out of the reach of children and pets. It is not advisable to give the drug to your kittens if they have a history of diarrhea, since this medication could make the infection worse.