A New Study Urges Caution In Choosing Metronidazole
Along with the pathogens, most antibiotics also alter the commensal populations needed for health. As a result, important gut microbiome populations can be decimated, leading to dysbiosis. A new study published this year in the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine calls attention to metronidazoles dramatic effects on the canine gut microbiome.1
Healthy dogs were medicated with a 14-day course of metronidazole more than 50% developed diarrhea during treatment. The gut microbiome composition changed significantly, and included decreases in important beneficial bacteria, such as Fusobacteria one of the dominant phyla of bacteria in the gut microbiomes of dogs and cats and reductions in overall richness . Effects were not temporary: fourweeks post metronidazole, microbiome changes had not fully resolved, compromising healthy gut function.
The authors recommend that veterinarians adopt a more cautious approach when using metronidazole, particularly in dysbiotic patients.
Can I Give My Dog Metronidazole
Yes, you can give your dog Metronidazole. However, you will need a veterinary prescription, and you will have to use the medication following the vets instructions and guidance.
The good news is that Metronidazole is safe for dogs, easy to use, and readily available. Plus, it can be used to manage various conditions but mostly different causes of diarrhea .
Simply put, Metronidazole is a highly valued antibiotic with proven antibacterial and antiprotozoal properties.
How To Store Metronidazole For Cats
Metronidazole tablets and capsules should be stored in a tightly sealed container at a temperature below below 30°C . Remember to always keep them away from the sunlight. A cabinet or drawer is a great option.
For the liquid formulations, these should be stored in the refrigerator. However, if your vet has made a special formulation, its best to ask them how to store it and follow the instructions provided.
This article is purely informative. AnimalWised does not have the authority to prescribe any veterinary treatment or create a diagnosis. We invite you to take your pet to the veterinarian if they are suffering from any condition or pain.
If you want to read similar articles to Metronidazole for Cats With Diarrhea, we recommend you visit our Medicine category.
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Antiparasitic Activity Of Metronidazole
Metronidazoleis especially recommended in intestinal infections caused by Giardia spp.This protozoan is a gastrointestinal parasite that commonly affects domestic felines. Its a pathogen that affects several mammals, including humans, among its possible hosts.
At this point, its essential to emphasize that metronidazole is only effective against this specific type of parasite, so it should never be used as the usual antiparasitic treatment against the classic flatworms and roundworms. Nor should it be used under any circumstances to combat diseases of viral or fungal origin, as it doesnt have any benefits at all.
Its common for owners to confuse the antiparasitic activity of this drug and believe that they are correctly deworming the cat, when in fact this is not the case.
It should be noted that giardia has zoonotic activity, i.e. it can affect humans. Taking into account that various studies put the total percentage of infected cats at around 12%, the use of this drug is more than justified whenever necessary. Needless to say, extreme handling precautions should be taken if the feline in the household is infected.
Does My Dog Have Any Conditions That Would Make A Bad Reaction To Metronidazole More Likely
Metronidazole should not be used if your dog has ever had an adverse reaction to it in the past. Dont use metronidazole if your dog might be pregnant. If your dog has liver disease, metronidazole should be used very cautiously and at a low dose. It should also be used cautiously in any animal with a compromised nervous system.
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Side Effects And Precautions Of Metronidazole In Dogs
Metronidazole is a prescription medication used to treat bacterial infections. It can help fight off infection, but it does have some side effects and precautions that you should know about before giving metronidazole to your dog.
Side Effects: Vomiting, loss of appetite, tiredness or weakness are all possible metronidazole side effects in dogs. If these symptoms persist for more than 24 hours after administering metronidazole then contact your veterinarian immediately as this may be an indication of a serious reaction from the drug. Other potential metronidazole side effects include diarrhea and discolored urine .
Precautions: Metronidazole should not be given to pregnant dogs. It should also not be given to female dogs who are nursing puppies or within two weeks of the last mating period.
The metronidazole can interact with other medications, vitamins, and supplements that your dog may be taking so it is important to always speak with a veterinarian before giving metronidazole to make sure no negative interactions occur.
Metronidazole For Dogs: Everything You Need To Know
Many people are unaware that metronidazole is also used to treat certain infections in dogs. Its important to understand the side effects of metronidazole before giving your dog metronidazole, as it can be toxic to them if they have a pre-existing condition or other health problem. In this guide you will learn about metronidazole for dogs and how it is used safely.
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Precautions And Side Effects
While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, metronidazole can cause side effects in some animals. Negative reactions to the drug may include:
- Liver damage
The drug also comes in the following liquid quantities:
- 500 milligram vials
- 5 milligram/milliliter injectable solutions
The typical dose of metronidazole ranges from 5 to 30 milligram per pound one to four times a day in both dogs and cats.The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, the pets response to the medication, and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, completing the entire treatment plan could prevent your pets symptoms from returning.
Does My Dog Need Antibiotics
In many cases of dog diarrhea, the answer may be no. Though some health issues, such as life-threatening bacterial infections, do require antibiotics, other conditions may resolve with supportive care alone.
For example, dogs with bloody diarrhea are often given antibiotics, but according to veterinary consensus guidelines, antibiotics are appropriate for this condition only when sepsis is present. Researchers have found that as long as sepsis is not involved, even hemorrhagic gastroenteritis responds just as well to supportive care as to antibiotics.
In fact, several studies have shown that metronidazole can actually make diarrhea worse, not only by reducing populations of good anaerobic bacteria but also by altering the intestinal mucus.
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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Metronidazole
Most medications have the potential to cause side effects, so its important to ask your veterinarian what to watch out for. Metronidazole has a very bitter taste and often causes excessive salivation, drooling, gagging, or frothing at the mouth, especially in cats. In both cats and dogs, the bitter taste may also cause nausea and loss of appetite , so pets taking metronidazole may eat less than usual or refuse meals altogether. Vomiting and diarrhea are also relatively common side effects of this drug.
More serious but less common adverse effects of metronidazole in pets include lethargy, weakness, liver damage, and central nervous system disorders. Clinical signs of nervous system toxicity may include abnormal eye movements, head tilt, loss of balance and coordination, stumbling or knuckling, and even seizures.
Some cases of birth defects have been recorded. Rare idiosyncratic reactions in dogs have included low blood counts. In cats, metronidazole has been found to cause DNA damage to lymphocytes , an important element of the immune system.
Metronidazole For Cats Dosage
The dosage for cats for metronidazole may vary depending on the purpose. Doses for general diarrhea may only be 5-10 mg/kg, but when treating specifically for Giardia or Tritrichomonas foetus are typically much higher.
For this reason, its very important to only use metronidazole as prescribed by your veterinarian.
In some cats, especially smaller kittens, the commercially available tablet sizes may be too large to provide for safe or practical dosing, making compounding the medication into very low dose tablet or liquid formulations at a compounding pharmacy more feasible.
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How Long Can A Cat Take Metronidazole
Most courses of metronidazole are shorter, for 1-2 weeks duration. Veterinarians may sometimes use it for longer, especially for cases of refractory diarrhea that appears to respond to metronidazole treatment.
While there is no defined limit for how long a cat can stay on this medication, there is a possibly increased risk of neurologic or liver toxicity effects over time with prolonged chronic use of months to years.
As with any medication, a balance always needs to be struck between benefits that the medication has for the signs and condition being treated, and any emerging or present side effects.
Guidelines For Safe Use
Metronidazole is considered very safe. However, it should not be prescribed to or young puppies, and should be considered carefully before being prescribed to dogs that are nursing. It may also not be suitable for pets with kidney disease, liver disease, neutropenia , or seizure disorders.
Before using any medication for your pet, its best to speak to your veterinarian. You should:
- Discuss any other medicine your dog is taking and the dogs medical conditions.
- Be cautious when using the drug for extended periods of time, since adverse effects are more common during long-term use.
- If you are giving your dog metronidazole to remedy diarrhea, be sure to provide lots of fresh water to prevent the dog from becoming dehydrated.
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Are There Any Potential Side Effects
Side effects of metronidazole may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, regurgitation, decreased appetite, tiredness, and drooling.
Metronidazole can cause neurological effects including lack of muscle control or coordination, tremors, seizures, vomiting, eye twitching, and weakness. These effects usually occur if metronidazole is given at high doses or for extended periods of time, but they can occur with lower doses as well. Contact your veterinarian immediately if you notice any of these signs with your pet.
Liver toxicity can occasionally occur. Signs of liver toxicity may include inappetence or yellowing of the skin, eyes, or gums. Contact your veterinarian if you notice these signs.
“Liver toxicity can occasionally occur.”
Very rarely, metronidazole may cause a skin disorder called cutaneous vasculitis, in which blood vessels become inflamed in the skin. Signs of this skin disorder include scaling, hair loss, bruising, swelling, and bumps on the skin. Contact your veterinarian if you notice any of these signs.
This short-acting medication should stop working within 24 hours, although effects can be longer in pets with liver or kidney disease.
Which Side Effects Are Life
All medications carry serious risks, including metronidazole, but thankfully they are very rare. These problems are more likely to happen if your dog is taking this medication at high doses or for a long time.
Contact the emergency pet hospital right away if you notice any of the following:
Hives, fast heart rate, or trouble breathing signs of a possible allergic reaction
Changes to emotional behavior, such as seeming more depressed or lethargic than usual
Trouble walking, tremors, enlarged pupils, rapid eye movements or twitching, or seizures
If you suspect that your dog received too much medication, contact the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center at . Please note, a consultation fee may apply for the call.
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Reactions With Other Drugs And Medications
There are a few specific medications that interact with metronidazole:
- Cimetidine metronidazole will leave the body slower, which increases risk of toxicity
- Cyclosporine increases the risk of toxic effects by cyclosporine on kidneys
- Phenobarbital metronidazole will leave the body more quickly, becoming less effective
- Warfarin metronidazole will leave the body more quickly, becoming less effective may also increase warfarins potency
If your cat is taking any of the above medications, make sure to speak to your veterinarian before giving your cat metronidazole.
What Are Metronidazole Tablets For Dogs And Cats
- Metronidazole is a synthetic antibacterial and antiprotazoal agent used to treat trichomoniasis, giardiasis, balantidiasis, amoebiasis, and trypanosomiasis in dogs and cats.
- Giardiasis is caused byt the parasite, Giardia, which lives in the small intestine and can cause diarrhea. The organism can be found in contaminated soil, food, and water.
- Metronidazole is a generic of brand Flagyl.
Why do cats and dogs use Metronidazole?
- Metronidazole may be prescribed to treat infections caused by some parasites, such as Giardia.
- Metronidazole can also be used to treat diarrhea and infections caused by anerobic bacteria.
What else should I know about Metronidazole?
- Metronidazole has a bitter taste. Disguising it with food may help you administer this drug successfully.
- The use of Metronidazole is banned in food producing animals, including egg-laying chickens and dairy animals.
- Looking for Metronidazole Capsules or Metronidazole Liquid Suspensions?
What problems could my dog or cat have with Metronidazole?
- Metronidazole can cause serious nervous system side effects, especially at high doses. Contact your veterinarian if you notice any changes in you companion’s behavior or coordination.
- Metronidazole should not be given to pregnant or nervous animals.
How do you use Metronidazole?
- Metronidazole should be given with food. Follow your veterianrian’s directions.
- Pregnant women and people allergic to Metronidazole should handle the drug with caution.
What is in Metronidazole?
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Its Dosage As An Antibacterial
The dosage of metronidazole as part of the treatment for these pathological processes is 12.5 milligrams of the product per kilogram of weight. The treatment usually lasts between 5 and 10 days, always under veterinary indication. Never stop medicating your pet because it looks better physically, as this will encourage the infection to reappear in the future .
Giving Your Cat Metronidazole A Technique
Cats hate the taste of Metronidazole. No, they REALLY hate the taste of metronidazole. If you are unfortunate enough to have to dose your pet with this loathsome substance, you likely have already discovered that after the first dose given to your sweet and unsuspecting little kitty, the second and following doses go much, much worse.
My little angel, Smith, has had to have several courses as he has spent the last four years struggling with some intestinal ailment. His reactions have ranged from a) digging a claw out of the cat burrito and inserting it firming into the hand with the syringe or pill and pulling firmly. b) sinking his teeth into the hand with the syringe or pill c) holding the pill in his mouth while drooling furiously for as long as I cared to hold him, at which case he would eject any remaining undissolved portion. d) Running furiously from me and cowering under things yowling at the top of his lungs when he heard the pill bottle. you get the idea.
He was the absolute worst to dose, and I literally thought one of us might not survive the course of medicine. And not because of his ailment.
So, eventually, common sense sunk in. I had a hard time taking pills as a child. I had difficulty swallowing them and they would stick in my throat. My mother used to use applesauce to help with this. Cats, of course, do not like apple sauce, and MY cats wouldnt eat a pill pocket if they were starving.
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Dosage Instructions For Dogs
Dosage instructions for metronidazole in dogs is as follows:
For mild cases, administer 125 mg to 250mg every 12 hours. In more severe conditions, give 500 mg every six hours or 100mg/kg of metronidazole twice a day until symptoms improve.
If the dog has the liver disease then the metronidazole dosage may be lower and it should not exceed 25%-30% of normal dose levels. Administer metronidazole with food if possible to increase its absorption rate by at least 50%. Do not break tablets before giving them orally because this will reduce their effectiveness due to immediate release into the intestine rather than the stomach which reduces contact time with metronidazole.
How Does It Work In Dogs
The metronidazole works by disturbing the bacterial cell wall. This means that both anaerobic and aerobic organisms are affected, which is why metronidazole often, but not always, can be used in dogs with confidence. Metronidazole has usually bacteriostatic activity against most obligate anaerobes, however, it can still sometimes cause damage to gingival tissue if given orally because metronidazole penetrates rapidly through the red blood cells of whole blood into tissues where there is no oxygen present such as dental pulp or skin infections sites. It also inhibits protein synthesis in microorganisms so its use should only be reserved for serious cases when other antibiotics have failed. Metronidazole is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic or renal impairment, porphyria, and methemoglobinemia.
Some metronidazoles could lead to photosensitivity reactions therefore animals should be prevented from sunlight exposure if metronidazole gel has been applied to the skin. This is a similar process compared to other common medications for dogs such as trazodone or allergy medications.
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