Vaccine And Immunoglobulin Safety And Adverse Events
Refer to Adverse Events Following Immunization in Part 2 for additional general information.
Common and local adverse events
Local injection site reactions such as pain, erythema, swelling, pruritus and induration at the injection site were reported in 60% to close to 90% of recipients. Mild systemic reactions such as headache, nausea, abdominal pain, muscle aches and dizziness were reported in about 6% to 55% of recipients.
Local injection site reactions were reported in 11% to 57% of recipients, consisting of pain, tenderness, swelling, erythema and induration at the injection site lasting for 2 to 3 days. Systemic reactions are generally less common and may consist of malaise, myalgia, arthralgia, headache and fever. Lymphadenopathy, nausea and rash have been reported occasionally.
Local injection site pain, erythema and induration are commonly reported following administration of RabIg, as are systemic reactions such as headache and low-grade fever. The majority of reported events were mild.
Less common and serious or severe adverse events
Serious adverse events are rare following immunization and, in most cases, data are insufficient to determine a causal association.
Anaphylaxis following immunization with PCECV has been rarely reported. Temporally associated neurologic events have also been very rarely reported but causal association with vaccination has not been established.
Contraindications and precautions
Protecting An Unvaccinated Cat
Full immunity develops around 3-4 weeks after the final injection in a primary course of vaccinations, but until then you will need to keep your feline friend indoors and away from cats outside of your household. Youll need to keep your cat entertained and stress-free during this time especially if they have previously been used to going outside.
What Are The Side Effects Of Rabies Vaccines In Cats
Fortunately, reactions to vaccines are very uncommon in cats. In fact, side effects of rabies vaccines in cats are very rare. When they do happen, they include slight fever, lethargy, decreased appetite and a localized swelling at the vaccine site.
These rabies vaccine side effects usually disappear within a few days.
In extremely rare cases, cats may develop an allergic reaction to the vaccine, which includes hives, swelling of the face and itchiness.
Severe reaction can include weakness and collapse. Keep in mind that these reactions are extremely rare allergic reactions occur in fewer than 10 cats out of each 10,000 cats vaccinated.
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Ongoing Costs And Routines
Weve already discussed the cost of insulin for cats. Here are some other things youll want to keep in mind:
A couple of times a week, you should test the cats urine with a dipstick.
This is a safety check to ensure no ketones are present. Ketones are a natural toxin and an early warning of trouble ahead. If the cat has ketones in the urine, then contact the vet urgently.
From time to time, monitoring is necessary to check if the insulin dose is correct.
This involves taking a pinprick of blood every hour or so to see how much sugar is in the blood.
This test can either be done at the vet clinic or at home. Home testing is preferable because the cat is usually less stressed.
Youll quickly adapt to the cats daily routine of injections, and it usually isnt too much of a bother.
Having a diabetic cat does mean sticking to a regular routine of mealtimes and injections. Theyll need feeding at least twice a day, and once youre happy theyre eating, then give an insulin injection.
Most people find this fits seamlessly into their daily routine, although it can be complicated if you travel a lot or go on vacation which well discuss briefly next.
How Much Does The Parvo Vaccine Cost
The cost of the parvo vaccine will vary depending on where you take your pup to get it done, but in most cases, it wont be super expensive.
High end, it would cost around $30, Dr. Bustamante said.
However, the cost of the shot itself probably wont be the only expense.
There’s usually a cost for the vet visit because they want to make sure that your dog is healthy, because the dogs need to be healthy for vaccines to work, Dr. Bustamante said.
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How Often Do Cats Need Shots And Other Preventative Treatments
I received an interesting question in the comments section on a Catster post I wrote about Advantage II flea medication: Do indoor-only cats need to be as heavily medicated or vaccinated as indoor/outdoor cats? I understand that I may bring fleas into my house, so I am okay with using something like Revolution, but do really need to be vaccinated for rabies every year or get booster shots? I cant wrap my head around this. I dont think I can bring rabies home, and there is a lot of conflicting information out there about booster shots. This question is a very good one. And it touches upon the ultimate unanswered million-dollar question of veterinary medicine: How often do cats need shots and other preventative treatments?
Is Your Cats Rabies Vaccination Current
Not to put too fine a point on it, but for unvaccinated cats and kittens, a rabies infection is a death sentence. Even an initial rabies vaccination, whether during kittenhood or prior to adoption in older cats, is a better guarantor than none at all. For the long-term health of your cat, it is worth having a serious conversation with your cats vet about rabies shots.
People have known about and feared rabies for thousands of years. Only a couple of people in the United States die from rabies infections each year, which may lead us to assume that it poses limited danger or none at all. This is a fallacy the relative rarity of rabies in America is precisely because of the accessibility and dependability of vaccines.
Indoor cats have an approximate lifespan of 15-plus years. If you follow a strict three-year vaccination schedule or determine along with your veterinarian that there is some room for negotiation, thats a total of three to five visits over the course of your cats life. That should not be considered an undue commitment or investment for any cat owner.
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Cats Dont Act Sick When Their Diabetes Is Well Managed
Proper diabetes care for a cat allows many patients to lead normal lives.
There are certainly exceptions, and some diabetic cats have many problems no 2 diabetics are the same.
If we catch the illness early, a diabetic cat will stop drinking tons of water, have a normal amount of energy and lead a happy life.
A Free Dog Can Cost You Around $370
When you first get a dog, you have to take him or her in for numerous tests and vaccinations. For a male dog, it can cost pet owners around $300, and for female dogs over $400! Be informed before you “buy” your next free dog. Better yet, play it safe and adopt one. We do all the tests, spaying and neutering, and vaccinations for you — all for our adoption fee of $200. That’s a savings of about $125 to $225 by adopting.
DROP US A LINE TODAY TO FIND OUT MORE!
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Why Should I Get My Indoor Cat Vaccinated
Though you may not think your indoor cat requires vaccinations, by law cats must have certain vaccinations in many states. For example, a common law requires cats over the age of 6 months to be vaccinated against rabies. In return for the vaccinations, your veterinarian will provide you with a vaccination certificate, which should be stored in a safe place.
When considering your cats health, its always prudent to be cautious, as cats are often curious by nature. Our vets recommend core vaccinations for indoor cats to protect them against diseases they could be exposed to if they happen to escape the safety of your home.
There are two basic types of vaccinations for cats.
Core vaccinations should be given to all cats, as they are essential for protecting them against the following common but serious feline conditions:
Rabies kills many mammals every year. These vaccinations are required by law for cats in most states.
Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis, Calicivirus and Panleukopenia Typically known as the distemper shot, this combination vaccine protects against feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus and panleukopenia.
Feline herpesvirus type I
Non-core vaccinations are appropriate for some cats depending on their lifestyle. Your vet will provide advice about which non-core vaccines your cat should have. These offer protection against:
Feline immunodeficiency virus and Feline Leukemia
Efficacy Effectiveness And Immunogenicity
Efficacy and effectiveness
HDCV or PCECV administered at the same time as RabIg and local treatment are highly effective in preventing rabies in exposed individuals. Failures of post-exposure management have occurred, although almost always after deviation from the recommended post-exposure prophylaxis protocol. No post-exposure prophylaxis failures have occurred in Canada or the US.
The immunogenicity of PCECV and HDCV for pre-exposure vaccination has been demonstrated in clinical trials. When PCECV was administered according to the recommended immunization schedule, 100% of subjects attained an adequate antibody titre by Day 28 or earlier. Persistence of adequate antibody titres for up to 2 years after immunization with PCECV has been demonstrated. After a three-dose primary series of HDCV, all vaccinees reached an adequate antibody titre. A 10-year follow-up study of subjects who received three doses of HDCV, followed by a booster dose at 1 year, has shown the maintenance of protective antibody up to 5 years in 96.2%. A seroconversion rate of 95.1% was demonstrated in travellers who received three ID injections of HDCV or PCECV, with a booster after 12 months.
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Core Vaccinations What Basic Vaccines Kittens Need
Core vaccines are a kittens first vaccinations that protect against the most common and fatal diseases for cats and are recommended by all veterinarians.
Feline rhinotracheitis, feline calicivirus, and feline panleukopenia are what shots kittens need to get a healthy jump on life. Theyre often combined into one vaccine that can be administered as early as 6 weeks of age, with booster shots administered every 3-4 weeks until they reach 16 weeks of age. To avoid over vaccinating, most vets recommend starting this vaccine at 8 weeks of age, with boosters at 12 and 16 weeks.
- Feline Rhinotracheitis is triggered by the common feline herpes virus. It can cause sneezing, runny nose, drooling, crusty eyes, lethargy, and weight loss. If left untreated, it can lead to dehydration, starvation, and eventually death.
- Calicivirus affects the respiratory system and may cause ulcers in the mouth. When it progresses, it can result in pneumonia. Young kittens and senior cats are most at risk.
- Panleukopenia, or distemper, is spread from cat to cat and is so common that almost all cats will be exposed to it at some point in their life. Once a cat contracts this disease, they can die within 12 hours. Symptoms include vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and fever.
Your Diabetic Cat May Live For Many Years With Proper Treatment
Many diabetic cats come in to the vet and their human and the cat dont think theyre that sick.
The cat is eating well but thinks the water bowl has turned into the best open bar in the world.
The pet parent decides to take the cat to the vet when theres urine floating on top of 20 pounds of soaked cat litter. In other words, the cat is severely polyuric/polydipsic .
If the cat is still happy, eating, and his glucose hasnt gotten too high or the diabetes hasnt been going on for a long time, this cat is what we call a happy diabetic.
These cats will usually respond to treatment quickly, and youve caught the disease before lots of secondary problems set in .
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Vaccines For Dogs And Cats
First, what is a vaccine? According to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals:
Vaccines help prepare the body’s immune system to fight the invasion of disease-causing organisms. Vaccines contain antigens, which look like the disease-causing organism to the immune system but don’t actually cause disease. When the vaccine is introduced to the body, the immune system is mildly stimulated. If a dog is ever exposed to the real disease, his immune system is now prepared to recognize and fight it off entirely or reduce the severity of the illness.
A pets vaccine requirements depend on his or her age and region of residence. As with young children, puppies and kittens need a few rounds of vaccines to jumpstart their immunity with boosters every year or every few years afterward.
The core vaccinations according to the American Animal Hospital Association for dogs include:
Veterinarians may also recommend vaccines against distemper and feline infectious peritonitis.
Some people with indoor cats opt for less vaccines some people dont care and want to protect their cat no matter what, said Dr. Andy McCord, veterinarian at Gainesway Small Animal Clinic in Lexington, Ky.
If your pet spends a significant portion of time outdoors, recommendations for those boosters could change, depending on disease prevalence in the area.
Why Is The Parvo Vaccine Important For Dogs
The parvo vaccine is so important so much so that its considered a core vaccine because parvovirus is an incredibly serious and contagious disease.
With the vaccine, parvo is so easily preventable. Without it, any dog is in danger of getting infected, regardless of his age, location or other lifestyle factors.
All inadequately vaccinated dogs are at risk, Dr. Bustamante said.
When you adopt a puppy, you might learn that your puppy is up to date on all his shots. However, that doesnt mean hes fully vaccinated, so you should always bring him to the vet to check in order to keep him safe.
Many people think that the puppy they recently adopted or purchased is fully vaccinated, Dr. Bustamante said. Most of them have received appropriate vaccines for their age, but this does not mean that they are fully protected or fully vaccinated.
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How Often Do Cats Need Shots To Protect Against Rabies
The final common vaccine in cats protects against rabies. I have written many times that rabies is the most deadly infectious disease of both cats and humans. Truly, there is no disease that should be more dreaded. Rabies is spread through direct contact with infected mammals. Could an indoor cat be exposed to rabies? It is not likely but it is theoretically possible I have heard of rabid bats flying down chimneys or through open windows.
Should the owner of an indoor cat vaccinate his pet against rabies? That depends upon a number of factors, including your tolerance for risk, local laws , and a cats likelihood of biting people .
How Often Do Cats Need Vaccine Booster Shots
Although there also is no simple answer to the question, How often do cats need shots? I am happy to report that there is an easy answer to the related question of whether indoor cats need booster shots every year. That answer is no.
The importance of feline vaccination is roughly inversely proportional to age. Kitten shots are phenomenally important, and unvaccinated kittens succumb to feline panleukopenia at high rates. I therefore recommend that all cat owners diligently have their cats vaccinated at 6-8 weeks, 10-12 weeks, and 14-16 weeks. A booster should occur at one year of age. I do not recommend that any cat receive subsequent boosters any more often than every three years many owners of indoor cats elect a 5-7 year period.
The FVRCP is the most important vaccine kittens receive. There are two other vaccines that are in common use. One protects against feline leukemia, or FeLV. Indoor cats are not at risk of contracting FeLV. Therefore, as long as there is no chance of escape, indoor cats dont need the vaccine for FeLV at all.
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Risks Associated With Vaccination
Immunizations should mildly stimulate the animals immune system in order to create protection from specific infectious diseases. This stimulation can create mild symptoms, ranging from soreness at the injection site to fever and allergic reactions.
There are other, less common side effects like injection site tumors and immune disease associated with vaccination. That said, it is important to realize that vaccines have saved countless lives, and play a vital role in the battle against infectious diseases. As with any medical procedure, there is a small chance of side effects. In most cases, the risks are much smaller than the risks of disease itself. But it is important to talk to your veterinarian about your pets medical history before he is vaccinated.
Most pets show no ill effect from vaccination. Vaccine reactions may be minor and short-lived or require immediate care from a veterinarian. Clinical signs include:
- Pain, swelling, redness, scabbing or hair loss around the injection site
It is best to schedule your pets appointment so that you can monitor him for any side effects following administration of the vaccine. If you suspect your pet is having a reaction to a vaccine, call your veterinarian immediately.
How Much Does It Cost To Get A Cat
If you’re adopting a cat from a shelter, the first cost you’re going to encounter is the adoption fee. These fees can vary by shelter and the age of the cat you’re adopting, but you can expect to pay somewhere around $50 to $175. Some shelter cats may already be spayed or neutered, microchipped, or vaccinated , which helps reduce your initial expenses.
Getting a cat from a breeder is more expensive. Some breeders may charge around $750 or more for a cat. Our strategic partner The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals® recommends adopting from a shelter. There are so many wonderful cats and kittens in need of loving homes. Plus, you could be saving a life by adding a shelter cat to your family.
Interesting in adopting a cat or kitten? You can search for a shelter near you and access other adoption resources online.